Former senator Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos remained the frontrunner in Pulse Asia’s latest presidential survey, which was criticized for being flawed.

Marcos was the pick of 56 percent of the respondents in the Pulse Asia survey conducted from April 16 to 21.

Vice President Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo placed second, mustering 23 percent.

Robredo’s support decreased by 1 percentage point despite her gathering big crowds in her campaign rallies.

Sen. Manny Pacquiao passed Manila Mayor Francisco “Isko Moreno” Domagoso for third place.

Pacquiao obtained 7 percent, while Domagoso collected 4 percent.

Sen. Panfilo “Ping” Lacson placed fifth with 2 percent.

Romulo Virola, a statistician from the University of Michigan, said the survey had several flaws, including:

(1) Underrepresentation of the 18-41 age group and overrepresentation of the 58 or over age group;
(2) Underrepresentation of those who reached college; overrepresentation of those who did not reach college; and
(3) Underrepresentation of those who belong to the ABC socio-economic classes (SEC); overrepresentation of those belonging to the DE classes combined.

“Thus, we concluded that if there are relatively more Leni supporters from the young, from those with higher educational attainment, and from those with higher socio-economic classification status, then the PA survey is biased against Leni,” he said.

The Pulse Asia survey had a +-2 percent error margin. John Ezekiel J. Hirro